Selected Academic Bibliography of Uyghur Genocide

An overview of the academic sources and serious investigative reports related to the ongoing genocide of the Uyghurs by the Chinese state. Emoji 🍐 means peer-reviewed.

Amnesty International. 2021. ‘“Like We Were Enemies in a War”: China’s Mass Internment, Torture and Persecution of Muslims in Xinjiang’.

Anand, Dibyesh. 2019. ‘Colonization with Chinese Characteristics: Politics of (in)Security in Xinjiang and Tibet’. Central Asian Survey 38 (1): 129–47. doi:10.1080/02634937.2018.1534801. 🍐

Anderson, Amy, and Darren Byler. 2019. ‘“Eating Hanness”: Uyghur Musical Tradition in a Time of Re-Education’. China Perspectives 2019 (3): 17–26. doi:10.4000/chinaperspectives.9358. 🍐

Anonymous. 2021. ‘You Shall Sing and Dance: Contested “Safeguarding” of Uyghur Intangible Cultural Heritage’. Asian Ethnicity 22 (1): 121–39. doi:10.1080/14631369.2020.1822733. 🍐

Brophy, David. 2019. ‘Good and Bad Muslims in Xinjiang’. Made in China Journal 4 (2): 44–53. doi:10.22459/mic.04.02.2019.05.

Byler, Darren. 2018. ‘Violent Paternalism: On the Banality of Uyghur Unfreedom’. The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus 16 (24). 🍐

Byler, Darren. 2021. In the Camps: China’s High-Tech Penal Colony. New York: Columbia Global Reports.

Byler, Darren. 2022. Terror Capitalism: Uyghur Dispossession and Masculinity in a Chinese City. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Cain, Geoffrey. 2021. The Perfect Police State: An Undercover Odyssey into China’s Terrifying Surveillance Dystopia of the Future. New York: PublicAffairs.

Fayard, Gregory. 2021. ‘Sun, Sand and Submachine Guns: Tourism in a Militarized Xinjiang, China’. The China Quarterly. doi:10.1017/S0305741021000515. 🍐

Forzano, Francesca, Maurizio Genuardi, and Yves Moreau. 2021. ‘ESHG warns against misuses of genetic tests and biobanks for discrimination purposes’. European Journal of Human Genetics 29 (6): 894–96. doi:10.1038/s41431-020-00786-6.

Greitens, Sheena Chestnut, Myunghee Lee, and Emir Yazici. 2019. ‘Counterterrorism and Preventive Repression: China’s Changing Strategy in Xinjiang’. International Security 44 (3): 9–47. doi:10.1162/isec_a_00368. 🍐

Grose, Timothy A. 2019. Negotiating Inseparability in China: The Xinjiang Class and the Dynamics of Uyghur Identity. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. doi:10.5790/hongkong/9789888528097.001.0001.

Grose, Timothy A. 2021. ‘If You Don’t Know How, Just Learn: Chinese Housing and the Transformation of Uyghur Domestic Space’. Ethnic and Racial Studies 44 (11): 2052–73. doi:10.1080/01419870.2020.1789686. 🍐

Hasmath, Reza. 2019. ‘What Explains the Rise of Majority–Minority Tensions and Conflict in Xinjiang?’ Central Asian Survey 38 (1): 46–60. doi:10.1080/02634937.2018.1496067. 🍐

Hayes, Anna. 2020. ‘Interwoven “Destinies”: The Significance of Xinjiang to the China Dream, the Belt and Road Initiative, and the Xi Jinping Legacy’. Journal of Contemporary China 29 (121): 31–45. doi:10.1080/10670564.2019.1621528. 🍐

Human Rights Watch and Mills Legal Clinic, Stanford Law School. 2021“Break Their Lineage, Break Their Roots”: Chinese Government Crimes against Humanity Targeting Uyghurs and Other Turkic Muslims (April).

Jardine, Bradley, Edward Lemon, and Natalie Hall. 2021. No Space Left to Run: China’s Transnational Repression of Uyghurs. Washington, D.C.: The Uyghur Human Rights Project and The Oxus Society for Central Asian Affairs.

Kam, Stefanie, and Michael Clarke. 2021. ‘Securitization, Surveillance and “de-Extremization” in Xinjiang’. International Affairs 97 (3): 625–42. doi:10.1093/ia/iiab038. 🍐

Kasim, Mehmetali. 2021. ‘Chinese Oppressive Policies Towards the Muslims in East Turkistan’. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 41 (1): 62–77. doi:10.1080/13602004.2021.1894386. 🍐

Kaul, Nitasha. 2020. ‘China : Xinjiang :: India : Kashmir’. Made in China Journal 5 (2): 62–71. doi:10.22459/mic.05.02.2020.05.

Kelemen, Barbara, and Richard Q. Turcsányi. 2020. ‘It’s the Politics, Stupid: China’s Relations with Muslim Countries on the Background of Xinjiang Crackdown’. Asian Ethnicity 21 (2): 223–43. doi:10.1080/14631369.2019.1677145. 🍐

Leibold, James. 2019. ‘The Spectre of Insecurity: The CCP’s Mass Internment Strategy in Xinjiang’. China Leadership Monitor no. 59 (Spring). March 1.

Leibold, James. 2020. ‘Surveillance in China’s Xinjiang Region: Ethnic Sorting, Coercion, and Inducement’. Journal of Contemporary China 29 (121): 46–60. doi:10.1080/10670564.2019.1621529. 🍐

Lim, Preston Jordan. 2020. ‘Applying International Law Solutions to the Xinjiang Crisis’. Asian-Pacific Law & Policy Journal 22 (1): 90–156.

Millward, James. 2021. Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang. (Revised ed.) London: Hurst & Co.

Millward, James and Dahlia Peterson. 2020. China’s system of oppression in Xinjiang: How it developed and how to curb it. (September) Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution.

Morgret, Nicole. 2021, September 24. Under the Gavel: Evidence of Uyghur-owned Property Seized and Sold Online. Washington, DC: Uyghur Human Rights Project.

Newlines Institute for Strategy and Policy. 2021. The Uyghur Genocide: An Examination of China’s Breaches of the 1948 Genocide Convention (8 March).

Raza, Zainab. 2019. ‘China’s “Political Re-Education” Camps of Xinjiang’s Uyghur Muslims’. Asian Affairs 50 (4): 488–501. doi:10.1080/03068374.2019.1672433. 🍐

Roberts, Sean R. 2018. ‘The Biopolitics of China’s “War on Terror” and the Exclusion of the Uyghurs’. Critical Asian Studies 50 (2): 232–58. doi:10.1080/14672715.2018.1454111. 🍐

Roberts, Sean R. 2020. The War on the Uyghurs: China’s Internal Campaign against a Muslim Minority. Princeton: Princeton University Press. doi:10.1515/9780691202211.

Robertson, Matthew P. 2020. ‘Counterterrorism or Cultural Genocide? Theory and Normativity in Knowledge Production About China’s “Xinjiang Strategy”’. Made in China Journal 5 (2): 72–82. doi:10.22459/mic.05.02.2020.06.

Rodríguez-Merino, Pablo A. 2019. ‘Old “Counter-Revolution”, New “Terrorism”: Historicizing the Framing of Violence in Xinjiang by the Chinese State’. Central Asian Survey 38 (1): 27–45. doi:10.1080/02634937.2018.1496066. 🍐

Ruser, Nathan. 2020. Documenting Xinjiang’s Detention System. Canberra: ASPI International Cyber Policy Centre.

Ruser, Nathan and James Leibold. 2021. ‘Family de-planning: The coercive campaign to drive down indigenous birth-rates in Xinjiang’. Policy Brief Report No. 44/2021. Canberra: ASPI International Cyber Policy Centre.

Ruser, Nathan, James Leibold, Kelsey Munro, and Tilla Hoca. 2020. ‘Cultural Erasure: Tracing the Destruction of Uyghur and Islamic Spaces in Xinjiang’. Policy Brief Report No. 38/2020. Canberra: ASPI International Cyber Policy Centre.

Salimjan, Guldana. 2021. ‘Naturalized Violence: Affective Politics of China’s “Ecological Civilization” in Xinjiang’. Human Ecology 49 (1): 59–68. doi:10.1007/s10745-020-00207-8. 🍐

Simon-Skjodt Center for the Prevention of Genocide. 2021, November. ‘To Make Us Slowly Disappear’: The Chinese Government’s Assault on the Uyghurs. Washington, D.C.: The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

Smith Finley, Joanne. 2019. ‘Securitization, Insecurity and Conflict in Contemporary Xinjiang: Has PRC Counter-Terrorism Evolved into State Terror?’ Central Asian Survey 38 (1): 1–26. doi:10.1080/02634937.2019.1586348. 🍐

Smith Finley, Joanne. 2019. ‘The Wang Lixiong Prophecy: “Palestinization” in Xinjiang and the Consequences of Chinese State Securitization of Religion’. Central Asian Survey 38 (1): 81–101. doi:10.1080/02634937.2018.1534802. 🍐

Smith Finley, Joanne. 2021. ‘Why Scholars and Activists Increasingly Fear a Uyghur Genocide in Xinjiang’. Journal of Genocide Research 23 (3): 348–70. doi:10.1080/14623528.2020.1848109. 🍐

Smith, Nicholas Ross, and David O’Brien. 2021. ‘Responding to China’s Crimes against Humanity in Xinjiang: Why Dialogue Is the Only Pathway for the Emerging “Coalition of the Willing”’. Global Affairs 7 (1): 79–86. doi:10.1080/23340460.2021.1921605. 🍐

Szadziewski, Henryk. 2020. ‘The Push for a Uyghur Human Rights Policy Act in the United States: Recent Developments in Uyghur Activism’. Asian Ethnicity 21 (2): 211–22. doi:10.1080/14631369.2019.1605497. 🍐

Thum, Rian. 2020. ‘The Spatial Cleansing of Xinjiang: Mazar Desecration in Context’. Made in China Journal 5 (2): 48–61. doi:10.22459/mic.05.02.2020.04.

Tobin, David. 2019. ‘A “Struggle of Life or Death”: Han and Uyghur Insecurities on China’s North-West Frontier’. The China Quarterly, no. 242 (June): 301–23. doi:10.1017/S030574101900078X. 🍐

Tobin, David. 2020. Securing China’s Northwest Frontier: Identity and Insecurity in Xinjiang. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9781108770408.

Tynen, Sarah. 2020. ‘Dispossession and Displacement of Migrant Workers: The Impact of State Terror and Economic Development on Uyghurs in Urban Xinjiang’. Central Asian Survey 39 (3): 303–23. doi:10.1080/02634937.2020.1743644. 🍐

Xu, Vicky Xiuzhong, Danielle Cave, James Leibold, Kelsey Munro, and Nathan Ruser. 2020. Uyghurs for Sale: “Re-Education”, Forced Labour and Surveillance beyond Xinjiang. Policy Brief Report No. 26/2020. Canberra: ASPI International Cyber Policy Centre.

Xu, Vicky Xiuzhong, James Leibold, and Daria Impiombato. 2021. The architecture of repression: Unpacking Xinjiang’s governance. October 19.

Zenz, Adrian. 2019. ‘“Thoroughly Reforming Them towards a Healthy Heart Attitude”: China’s Political Re-Education Campaign in Xinjiang’. Central Asian Survey 38 (1): 102–28. doi:10.1080/02634937.2018.1507997. 🍐

Zenz, Adrian. 2019. ‘Brainwashing, Police Guards and Coercive Internment: Evidence from Chinese Government Documents about the Nature and Extent of Xinjiang’s “Vocational Training Internment Camps”’. Journal of Political Risk 7 (7). 🍐

Zenz, Adrian. 2019. ‘Break Their Roots: Evidence for China’s Parent-Child Separation Campaign in Xinjiang’. Journal of Political Risk 7 (7). 🍐

Zenz, Adrian. 2020. ‘The Karakax List: Dissecting the Anatomy of Beijing’s Internment Drive in Xinjiang’. Journal of Political Risk 8 (2). 🍐

Zenz, Adrian. 2020. Sterilizations, IUDs, and Mandatory Birth Control: The CCP’s Campaign to Suppress Uyghur Birthrates in Xinjiang. June. Washington, D.C.: Jamestown Foundation.

Zenz, Adrian. 2021. Coercive Labor and Forced Displacement in Xinjiang’s Cross-Regional Labor Transfer Program: A Process-Oriented Evaluation. March. Washington, D.C.: Jamestown Foundation.

Zenz, Adrian. 2021. ‘End the dominance of the Uyghur ethnic group’: an analysis of Beijing’s population optimization strategy in southern Xinjiang. Central Asian Survey 40 (3): 291–312. doi:10.1080/02634937.2021.1946483. 🍐

Zenz, Adrian. 2021, September 14. ‘Evidence of the Chinese Central Government’s Knowledge of and Involvement in Xinjiang’s Re-Education Internment Campaign’. Jamestown China Brief.

Zenz, Adrian. 2021, November 27. The Xinjiang Papers: An Introduction. London: Uyghur Tribunal.

Zenz, Adrian, and James Leibold. 2019. ‘Securitizing Xinjiang: Police Recruitment, Informal Policing and Ethnic Minority Co-Optation’. The China Quarterly, no. 242 (June): 324–48. doi:10.1017/S0305741019000778. 🍐

Zhao, Taotao, and James Leibold. 2020. ‘Ethnic Governance under Xi Jinping: The Centrality of the United Front Work Department & Its Implications’. Journal of Contemporary China 29 (124): 487–502. doi:10.1080/10670564.2019.1677359. 🍐

Selected journalistic works

AFP. 2019. ‘Fake tourists and car crashes: How China blocks reporters in Xinjiang’. June 27.

ASPI. n.d. The Xinjiang Data Project.

The Associated Press. 2020. ‘China Cuts Uighur Births with IUDs, Abortion, Sterilization’. AP. June 29.

Bad China Takes. n.d. ‘Breaking Down the Xinjiang Crisis’. the woke global times.

Brophy, David. 2018. ‘China’s Uyghur Repression’. Jacobin Magazine. May 31.

Byler, Darren. 2018. ‘China’s Government Has Ordered a Million Citizens to Occupy Uighur Homes. Here’s What They Think They’re Doing.’ ChinaFile. October 24.

Byler, Darren. 2019. ‘Ghost World’. Logic no. 8 (May).

Byler, Darren. 2019. ‘Spirit Breaking: Capitalism and Terror in Northwest China’. The Art of Life in Chinese Central Asia. July 22.

Byler, Darren. 2021. ‘Why Xinjiang is an internal settler colony’. SupChina. September 1.

Cadell, Cate. 2021. ‘Mosques disappear as China strives to “build a beautiful Xinjiang”’. Reuters. May 14.

Dooley, Ben. 2018. ‘Inside China’s Internment Camps: Tear Gas, Tasers and Textbooks’. AFP. October 25.

Fahrion, Georg. 2021. ‘In the Sinister Disneyland of Xinjiang: China’s Ongoing Oppression of the Uighurs’. Der Spiegel. May 27.

Fiskesjö, Magnus. 2019. ‘Universities Should Not Ignore China’s Persecution of Scores of Leading Academics’. Inside Higher Ed. April 8.

Grauer, Yael. 2021. ‘Revealed: Massive Chinese Politics Database: Millions of Leaked Police Files Detail Suffocating Surveillance of China’s Uyghur Minority’. The Intercept. January 29.

Graham-Harrison, Emma, and Juliette Garside. 2019. ‘“Allow No Escapes”: Leak Exposes Reality of China’s Vast Prison Network’. The Guardian. November 24.

Griffiths, James. 2021. ‘These Uyghurs were locked up by the US in Guantanamo. Now they’re being used as an excuse for China’s crackdown in Xinjiang’. CNN. May 15.

Grose, Timothy. 2021. ‘Dragon Boat Festival and Chinese Nation-Building in Xinjiang’. The Diplomat. June 14.

Harris, Rachel. 2020. ‘Islamophobia, the Global War on Terror, and China’s policies in Xinjiang’. Society and Space. December 7.

Hill, Matthew, David Campanale, and Joel Gunter. 2021. ‘“Their Goal Is to Destroy Everyone”: Uighur Camp Detainees Allege Systematic Rape’. BBC News. February 2.

Institute of Asian Research, University of British Columbia. n.d. Xinjiang Documentation Project.

Izgil, Tahir Hamut. 2021. ‘One by One, My Friends Were Sent to the Camps’. The Atlantic. July 14.

Kang, Dake. 2021. ‘Room for 10,000: Inside China’s largest detention center’. The Associated Press. July 22.

Kang, Dake. 2021. ‘Terror & tourism: Xinjiang eases its grip, but fear remains’. The Associated Press. October 10.

Kanji, Azeezah and David Palumbo-Liu. 2021. ‘The faux anti-imperialism of denying anti-Uighur atrocities’. Al Jazeera. May 14.

Khatchadourian, Raffi. 2021. ‘Surviving the Crackdown in Xinjiang’. The New Yorker. April 5.

Kine, Phelim. 2021. ‘How China hijacked the war on terror’. POLITICO. September 9.

Leibold, James. 2019. ‘Despite China’s denials, its treatment of the Uyghurs should be called what it is: cultural genocide’. The Conversation. July 24.

Millward, James. 2019. ‘“Reeducating” Xinjiang’s Muslims’. The New York Review of Books 66 (2). February 7.

Millward, James. 2020. ‘The Uyghurs’ suffering deserves targeted solutions, not anti-Chinese posturing’. The Guardian. July 27.

Murray, Christine. 2020. ‘Shipment of Chinese Hair Goods Seized by U.S. Officials Suspecting Forced Labor’. Reuters. July 2.

Rajagopalan, Megha, Alison Killing, and Christo Buschek. 2020. ‘China Built A Vast New Infrastructure To Imprison Uighurs’. BuzzFeed News. August 27.

Ramzy, Austin, and Chris Buckley. 2019. ‘“Absolutely No Mercy”: Leaked Files Expose How China Organized Mass Detentions of Muslims’. The New York Times. November 16.

Roche, Gerald. 2021. ‘Xinjiang Denialists Are Only Aiding Imperialism’. The Nation. July 6.

Salimjan, Guldana. 2021. ‘Camp land: Settler ecotourism and Kazakh dispossession in contemporary Xinjiang’. Lausan. September 1.

Smith Finley, Joanne. 2018. ‘“Now We Don’t Talk Anymore”: Inside the ‘Cleansing’ of Xinjiang’. ChinaFile. December 28.

Stone, Lyman. 2020. ‘The Chinese Communist Party Wants a Han Baby Boom That Isn’t Coming’. Foreign Policy. June 30.

Talk About Xinjiang 我们一起来谈谈新疆. n.d.

Tiezzi, Shannon. 2021. ‘What Do Chinese People Think Is Happening in Xinjiang?’. The Diplomat. May 29.

Tynen, Sarah. 2020. ‘I was in China doing research when I saw my Uighur friends disappear’. The Conversation. March 9.

Vervaeke, Leen. 2021. ‘How China is destroying the Uyghur mosques’. De Volkskrant. June 12.

Wright, Rebecca, Ivan Watson, Zahid Mahmood, and Tom Booth. 2021. ‘“Some are just psychopaths”: Chinese detective in exile reveals extent of torture against Uyghurs. CNN. October 4.

Xinjiang Victims Database. n.d.

Zenz, Adrian and Erin Rosenberg. 2021. ‘Beijing Plans a Slow Genocide in Xinjiang: Chinese officials’ own words speak to plans to reduce Uyghur births’. Foreign Policy. June 8.

Harassment and Slander

Cadell, Cate. 2021. ‘China counters Uighur criticism with explicit attacks on women witnesses’. Reuters. March 1.

Chan, Melissa. 2021. ‘“I Never Thought China Could Ever Be This Dark”: Leaving Xinjiang has not meant Uyghur women are free of Beijing’s grasp’. The Atlantic. April 8.

Clarke, Donald. 2021. ‘China v. Zenz: the lawsuit’. The China Collection. March 9.

Kang, Dake. 2021. ‘Chinese authorities order video denials by Uyghurs of abuses’. AP. May 20.

Kao, Jeff, Raymond Zhong, Paul Mozur, Aliza Aufrichtig, Nailah Morgan, and Aaron Krolik. 2021. ‘“We Are Very Free”: How China Spreads Its Propaganda Version of Life in Xinjiang’. The New York Times. June 22.

Karadsheh, Jomana and Gul Tuysuz. 2021. ‘Uyghurs are being deported from Muslim countries, raising concerns about China’s growing reach’. CNN. June 8.

Kuo, Lili and Gerry Shih. 2021. ‘China researchers face abuse, sanctions as Beijing looks to silence critics’. The Washington Post. April 7.

Ramzy, Austin. 2021. ‘“They Have My Sister”: As Uyghurs Speak Out, China Targets Their Families’. The New York Times. July 27.

Yang, William. 2021. ‘Chinese journalist vowed to fight on despite becoming target of the Chinese smear campaign for reporting on Xinjiang’. Medium. April 7.

Zenz, Adrian. 2020. ‘A Response to the Report Compiled by Lin Fangfei, Associate Professor at Xinjiang University’. Medium. October 7.

‘Solidarity statement on behalf of scholars sanctioned for their work on China / 学界联署声明:声援因从事中国研究而被制裁之学者’. n.d.

Join the conversation


  1. Beste Sense, ik ben geen wetenschapper. Uit nieuwsgierigheid zou ik willen vragen, worden Amnesty rapporten als academische literatuur beschouwd? Ze worden toch niet gepeerreviewed ? En idem voor rapporten van denktanks als ASPI?
    Ik heb zelf meegeschreven aan een rapport van het LAC maar ik meende dat dat gezien werd als beleidsonderzoek en niet als academische literatuur
    Vr groet
    Annemarie Montulet

    1. Ik heb ze bij de academische publicaties gezet, omdat ze grondiger en technischer zijn dan de journalistieke publicaties. De gepeerreviewde publicaties zijn gemarkeerd met een ‘🍐’.

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