Selected Academic Bibliography of Uyghur Genocide

An overview of the academic sources and serious investigative reports related to the ongoing genocide of the Uyghurs by the Chinese state. Emoji 🍐 means peer-reviewed. Bolded entries are suggested starting points for people new to the issue.

Scroll further down for sections listing a selection of reports and journalism.

Abdulla, Munawwar, and Zubayra Shamseden. 2021. ‘The Rise of Xenophobia and the Uyghur-China Situation’. Social Research: An International Quarterly 88 (4): 949–72. doi:10.1353/sor.2021.0040.

Anand, Dibyesh. 2019. ‘Colonization with Chinese Characteristics: Politics of (in)Security in Xinjiang and Tibet’. Central Asian Survey 38 (1): 129–47. doi:10.1080/02634937.2018.1534801. 🍐

Anderson, Amy, and Darren Byler. 2019. ‘“Eating Hanness”: Uyghur Musical Tradition in a Time of Re-Education’. China Perspectives 2019 (3): 17–26. doi:10.4000/chinaperspectives.9358. 🍐

Anonymous. 2021. ‘You Shall Sing and Dance: Contested “Safeguarding” of Uyghur Intangible Cultural Heritage’. Asian Ethnicity 22 (1): 121–39. doi:10.1080/14631369.2020.1822733. 🍐

Brophy, David. 2019. ‘Good and Bad Muslims in Xinjiang’. Made in China Journal 4 (2): 44–53. doi:10.22459/mic.04.02.2019.05.

Byler, Darren. 2018. ‘Violent Paternalism: On the Banality of Uyghur Unfreedom’. The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus 16 (24). 🍐

Byler, Darren. 2021. In the Camps: China’s High-Tech Penal Colony. New York: Columbia Global Reports.

Byler, Darren. 2022. Terror Capitalism: Uyghur Dispossession and Masculinity in a Chinese City. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. doi:10.1215/9781478022268.

Byler, Darren. 2022. ‘Eliminate All Illegal Births: Negative Eugenics and Uyghur Women as Objects of Contestation’. HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory 12 (2): 367–72. doi:10.1086/720761. 🍐

Byler, Darren, Ivan Franceschini, and Nicholas Loubere eds. 2022. Xinjiang Year Zero. Canberra: ANU Press. doi:10.22459/XYZ.2021.

Cain, Geoffrey. 2021. The Perfect Police State: An Undercover Odyssey into China’s Terrifying Surveillance Dystopia of the Future. New York: PublicAffairs.

Clarke, Michael ed. 2022. The Xinjiang emergency: Exploring the causes and consequences of China’s mass detention of Uyghurs. Manchester: Manchester University Press. doi:10.7765/9781526153128.

Fayard, Gregory. 2021. ‘Sun, Sand and Submachine Guns: Tourism in a Militarized Xinjiang, China’. The China Quarterly. no. 248: 1129–1151. doi:10.1017/S0305741021000515. 🍐

Forzano, Francesca, Maurizio Genuardi, and Yves Moreau. 2021. ‘ESHG warns against misuses of genetic tests and biobanks for discrimination purposes’. European Journal of Human Genetics 29 (6): 894–96. doi:10.1038/s41431-020-00786-6.

Greitens, Sheena Chestnut, Myunghee Lee, and Emir Yazici. 2019. ‘Counterterrorism and Preventive Repression: China’s Changing Strategy in Xinjiang’. International Security 44 (3): 9–47. doi:10.1162/isec_a_00368. 🍐

Grose, Timothy A. 2019. Negotiating Inseparability in China: The Xinjiang Class and the Dynamics of Uyghur Identity. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. doi:10.5790/hongkong/9789888528097.001.0001.

Grose, Timothy A. 2021. ‘If You Don’t Know How, Just Learn: Chinese Housing and the Transformation of Uyghur Domestic Space’. Ethnic and Racial Studies 44 (11): 2052–73. doi:10.1080/01419870.2020.1789686. 🍐

Grose, Timothy A. 2022. ‘Chinese Social Media Sources Leave No Room for Denial: Documenting Human Rights Violations in Xinjiang’. HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory 12 (2): 392–404. doi:10.1086/721745. 🍐

Hasmath, Reza. 2019. ‘What Explains the Rise of Majority–Minority Tensions and Conflict in Xinjiang?’ Central Asian Survey 38 (1): 46–60. doi:10.1080/02634937.2018.1496067. 🍐

Hayes, Anna. 2020. ‘Interwoven “Destinies”: The Significance of Xinjiang to the China Dream, the Belt and Road Initiative, and the Xi Jinping Legacy’. Journal of Contemporary China 29 (121): 31–45. doi:10.1080/10670564.2019.1621528. 🍐

Harris, Rachel. 2024. ‘The Aesthetics and Imaginaries of Uyghur Heritage, Chinese Tourism, and the Xinjiang Dance Craze’. International Journal of Heritage Studies. 🍐

Kam, Stefanie, and Michael Clarke. 2021. ‘Securitization, Surveillance and “de-Extremization” in Xinjiang’. International Affairs 97 (3): 625–42. doi:10.1093/ia/iiab038. 🍐

Kasim, Mehmetali. 2021. ‘Chinese Oppressive Policies Towards the Muslims in East Turkistan’. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 41 (1): 62–77. doi:10.1080/13602004.2021.1894386. 🍐

Kaul, Nitasha. 2020. ‘China : Xinjiang :: India : Kashmir’. Made in China Journal 5 (2): 62–71. doi:10.22459/mic.05.02.2020.05.

Kelemen, Barbara, and Richard Q. Turcsányi. 2020. ‘It’s the Politics, Stupid: China’s Relations with Muslim Countries on the Background of Xinjiang Crackdown’. Asian Ethnicity 21 (2): 223–43. doi:10.1080/14631369.2019.1677145. 🍐

Leibold, James. 2020. ‘Surveillance in China’s Xinjiang Region: Ethnic Sorting, Coercion, and Inducement’. Journal of Contemporary China 29 (121): 46–60. doi:10.1080/10670564.2019.1621529. 🍐

Lim, Preston Jordan. 2020. ‘Applying International Law Solutions to the Xinjiang Crisis’. Asian-Pacific Law & Policy Journal 22 (1): 90–156.

Millward, James. 2021. Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang. (Revised ed.) London: Hurst & Co. doi:10.7312/mill20454.

Raza, Zainab. 2019. ‘China’s “Political Re-Education” Camps of Xinjiang’s Uyghur Muslims’. Asian Affairs 50 (4): 488–501. doi:10.1080/03068374.2019.1672433. 🍐

Roberts, Sean R. 2018. ‘The Biopolitics of China’s “War on Terror” and the Exclusion of the Uyghurs’. Critical Asian Studies 50 (2): 232–58. doi:10.1080/14672715.2018.1454111. 🍐

Roberts, Sean R. 2020. The War on the Uyghurs: China’s Internal Campaign against a Muslim Minority. Princeton: Princeton University Press. doi:10.1515/9780691202211.

Robertson, Matthew P. 2020. ‘Counterterrorism or Cultural Genocide? Theory and Normativity in Knowledge Production About China’s “Xinjiang Strategy”’. Made in China Journal 5 (2): 72–82. doi:10.22459/mic.05.02.2020.06.

Roche, Gerald and James Leibold. 2022. ‘State Racism and Surveillance in Xinjiang (People’s Republic of China)’. The Political Quarterly 93(3): 442–50. doi:10.1111/1467-923X.13149. 🍐

Rodríguez-Merino, Pablo A. 2019. ‘Old “Counter-Revolution”, New “Terrorism”: Historicizing the Framing of Violence in Xinjiang by the Chinese State’. Central Asian Survey 38 (1): 27–45. doi:10.1080/02634937.2018.1496066. 🍐

Rodríguez-Merino, Pablo A., and Chi Zhang. 2023. ‘Impaired, “Easy Prey” Saved by the She- Empowering State: Official Narratives of “Xinjiang Women” in China’s “People’s War on Terror.”’ International Feminist Journal of Politics. doi:10.1080/14616742.2022.2159850. 🍐

Salimjan, Guldana. 2021. ‘Naturalized Violence: Affective Politics of China’s “Ecological Civilization” in Xinjiang’. Human Ecology 49 (1): 59–68. doi:10.1007/s10745-020-00207-8. 🍐

Smith Finley, Joanne. 2019. ‘Securitization, Insecurity and Conflict in Contemporary Xinjiang: Has PRC Counter-Terrorism Evolved into State Terror?’ Central Asian Survey 38 (1): 1–26. doi:10.1080/02634937.2019.1586348. 🍐

Smith Finley, Joanne. 2019. ‘The Wang Lixiong Prophecy: “Palestinization” in Xinjiang and the Consequences of Chinese State Securitization of Religion’. Central Asian Survey 38 (1): 81–101. doi:10.1080/02634937.2018.1534802. 🍐

Smith Finley, Joanne. 2021. ‘Why Scholars and Activists Increasingly Fear a Uyghur Genocide in Xinjiang’. Journal of Genocide Research 23 (3): 348–70. doi:10.1080/14623528.2020.1848109. 🍐

Smith Finley, Joanne. 2022. ‘Tabula Rasa: Han Settler Colonialism and Frontier Genocide in “Re-Educated” Xinjiang’. HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory 12 (2): 341–56. doi:10.1086/720902. 🍐

Smith, Nicholas Ross, and David O’Brien. 2021. ‘Responding to China’s Crimes against Humanity in Xinjiang: Why Dialogue Is the Only Pathway for the Emerging “Coalition of the Willing”’. Global Affairs 7 (1): 79–86. doi:10.1080/23340460.2021.1921605. 🍐

Svec, Jan. 2022. ‘Labour Transfers as a Means of “Civilizing” and Forcibly Assimilating Ethnic Minorities in Western China’. Central Asian Survey 41 (3): 385–401. doi:10.1080/02634937.2022.2054950. 🍐

Szadziewski, Henryk. 2020. ‘The Push for a Uyghur Human Rights Policy Act in the United States: Recent Developments in Uyghur Activism’. Asian Ethnicity 21 (2): 211–22. doi:10.1080/14631369.2019.1605497. 🍐

Szadziewski, Henryk, Mary Mostafanezhad, and Galen Murton. 2022. ‘Territorialization on Tour: The Tourist Gaze along the Silk Road Economic Belt in Kashgar, China’. Geoforum, 128 (January): 135–47. doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2021.12.010. 🍐

Thum, Rian. 2020. ‘The Spatial Cleansing of Xinjiang: Mazar Desecration in Context’. Made in China Journal 5 (2): 48–61. doi:10.22459/mic.05.02.2020.04.

Tobin, David. 2019. ‘A “Struggle of Life or Death”: Han and Uyghur Insecurities on China’s North-West Frontier’. The China Quarterly, no. 242 (June): 301–23. doi:10.1017/S030574101900078X. 🍐

Tobin, David. 2020. Securing China’s Northwest Frontier: Identity and Insecurity in Xinjiang. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9781108770408.

Tobin, David. 2022. ‘Genocidal Processes: Social Death in Xinjiang’. Ethnic and Racial Studies 45 (16): 93–121. doi:10.1080/01419870.2021.2001556. 🍐

Tynen, Sarah. 2020. ‘Dispossession and Displacement of Migrant Workers: The Impact of State Terror and Economic Development on Uyghurs in Urban Xinjiang’. Central Asian Survey 39 (3): 303–23. doi:10.1080/02634937.2020.1743644. 🍐

Yusupov, Ruslan. 2022. ‘“Crimes against Sovereignty”: Foreign Diplomacy, State Propaganda, and the Uyghur Crisis in Xinjiang’. HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory 12 (2): 382–91. doi:10.1086/720565. 🍐

Zenz, Adrian. 2019. ‘“Thoroughly Reforming Them towards a Healthy Heart Attitude”: China’s Political Re-Education Campaign in Xinjiang’. Central Asian Survey 38 (1): 102–28. doi:10.1080/02634937.2018.1507997. 🍐

Zenz, Adrian. 2019. ‘Brainwashing, Police Guards and Coercive Internment: Evidence from Chinese Government Documents about the Nature and Extent of Xinjiang’s “Vocational Training Internment Camps”’. Journal of Political Risk 7 (7). 🍐

Zenz, Adrian. 2019. ‘Break Their Roots: Evidence for China’s Parent-Child Separation Campaign in Xinjiang’. Journal of Political Risk 7 (7). 🍐

Zenz, Adrian. 2020. ‘The Karakax List: Dissecting the Anatomy of Beijing’s Internment Drive in Xinjiang’. Journal of Political Risk 8 (2). 🍐

Zenz, Adrian. 2021. ‘End the dominance of the Uyghur ethnic group’: an analysis of Beijing’s population optimization strategy in southern Xinjiang. Central Asian Survey 40 (3): 291–312. doi:10.1080/02634937.2021.1946483. 🍐

Zenz, Adrian. 2022. ‘The Xinjiang Police Files: Re-Education Camp Security and Political Paranoia in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region’. Journal of the European Association for Chinese Studies 3: 1–56. doi:10.25365/jeacs.2022.3.zenz. 🍐

Zenz, Adrian. 2023. ‘Coercive Labor in the Cotton Harvest in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and Uzbekistan: A Comparative Analysis of State-Sponsored Forced Labor’. Communist and Post-Communist Studies 56 (2): 1–32. doi:10.1525/cpcs.2023.1822939. 🍐

Zenz, Adrian. 2023. ‘Innovating Penal Labor: Reeducation, Forced Labor, and Coercive Social Integration in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region’. The China Journal, no. 90 (July): 27–53. doi:10.1086/725494. 🍐

Zenz, Adrian. 2023. ‘The Conceptual Evolution of Poverty Alleviation through Labour Transfer in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region’. Central Asian Survey. doi:10.1080/02634937.2023.2227225. 🍐

Zenz, Adrian, and James Leibold. 2019. ‘Securitizing Xinjiang: Police Recruitment, Informal Policing and Ethnic Minority Co-Optation’. The China Quarterly, no. 242 (June): 324–48. doi:10.1017/S0305741019000778. 🍐

Zhao, Taotao, and James Leibold. 2020. ‘Ethnic Governance under Xi Jinping: The Centrality of the United Front Work Department & Its Implications’. Journal of Contemporary China 29 (124): 487–502. doi:10.1080/10670564.2019.1677359. 🍐

Reports and other think tank and NGO productions

Amnesty International. 2021. ‘“Like We Were Enemies in a War”: China’s Mass Internment, Torture and Persecution of Muslims in Xinjiang’.

Crawford, Alan, and Laura T. Murphy. 2023, August. Over-Exposed: Uyghur Region Exposure Assessment for Solar Industry Sourcing. Sheffield: Helena Kennedy Centre for International Justice, Sheffield Hallam University.

Harris, Rachel Harris and Abduweli Ayup. 2024. Twenty Years for Learning the Quran: Uyghur Women and Religious Persecution. Washington, D.C.: The Uyghur Human Rights Project. February 1.

Human Rights Watch and Mills Legal Clinic, Stanford Law School. 2021“Break Their Lineage, Break Their Roots”: Chinese Government Crimes against Humanity Targeting Uyghurs and Other Turkic Muslims (April).

Jardine, Bradley. 2022. Great Wall of Steel: China’s Global Campaign to Suppress the Uyghurs. Washington, D.C.: Kissinger Institute on China and the United States, The Wilson Center.

Jardine, Bradley, Edward Lemon, and Natalie Hall. 2021. No Space Left to Run: China’s Transnational Repression of Uyghurs. Washington, D.C.: The Uyghur Human Rights Project and The Oxus Society for Central Asian Affairs.

Leibold, James. 2019. ‘The Spectre of Insecurity: The CCP’s Mass Internment Strategy in Xinjiang’. China Leadership Monitor no. 59 (Spring). March 1.

Li, Lin, and James Leibold. 2022. ‘Cultivating Friendly Forces: The Chinese Communist Party’s Influence Operations in the Xinjiang Diaspora’. Policy Brief Report No. 61/2022. Canberra: ASPI International Cyber Policy Centre.

Millward, James and Dahlia Peterson. 2020. China’s system of oppression in Xinjiang: How it developed and how to curb it. (September) Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution.

Morgret, Nicole. 2021, September 24. Under the Gavel: Evidence of Uyghur-owned Property Seized and Sold Online. Washington, DC: Uyghur Human Rights Project.

Murphy, Laura T., Elimä Nyrola, and David Tobin. 2022, July. Until Nothing is Left: China’s Settler Corporation and its Human Rights Violations in the Uyghur Region, A report on the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps. Sheffield: SHU Helena Kennedy Centre for International Justice.

Newlines Institute for Strategy and Policy. 2021, March 8. The Uyghur Genocide: An Examination of China’s Breaches of the 1948 Genocide Convention.

Nice, Geoffrey. 2021, December 9. Judgement: Summary Form. Uyghur Tribunal.

Ruser, Nathan. 2020. Documenting Xinjiang’s Detention System. Canberra: ASPI International Cyber Policy Centre.

Ruser, Nathan and James Leibold. 2021. ‘Family de-planning: The coercive campaign to drive down indigenous birth-rates in Xinjiang’. Policy Brief Report No. 44/2021. Canberra: ASPI International Cyber Policy Centre.

Ruser, Nathan, James Leibold, Kelsey Munro, and Tilla Hoca. 2020. ‘Cultural Erasure: Tracing the Destruction of Uyghur and Islamic Spaces in Xinjiang’. Policy Brief Report No. 38/2020. Canberra: ASPI International Cyber Policy Centre.

Ryan, Fergus, Daria Impiombato, and Hsi-ting Pai. 2022. ‘Frontier Influencers: The New Face of China’s Propaganda’. Policy Brief Report No. 65/2022. Canberra: ASPI International Cyber Policy Centre.

Simon-Skjodt Center for the Prevention of Genocide. 2021, November. ‘To Make Us Slowly Disappear’: The Chinese Government’s Assault on the Uyghurs. Washington, D.C.: The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

Tobin, David, and Nyrola Elimä. 2023. ‘“We Know You Better than You Know Yourself”: China’s Transnational Repression of the Uyghur Diaspora’. Sheffield: The University of Sheffield.

United Nations OHCHR. 2022, August 31. Assessment of human rights concerns in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, People’s Republic of China.

Worden, Andréa J., Nuzigum Setiwaldi, Elise Anderson, Henryk Szadziewski, Louisa Greve, and Ben Carrdus. 2022, November 16. Forced Marriage of Uyghur Women: State Policies for Interethnic Marriages in East Turkistan. Washington, D.C.: The Uyghur Human Rights Project.

Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation. n.d. The Xinjiang Police Files.

Xu, Vicky Xiuzhong, Danielle Cave, James Leibold, Kelsey Munro, and Nathan Ruser. 2020. Uyghurs for Sale: “Re-Education”, Forced Labour and Surveillance beyond Xinjiang. Policy Brief Report No. 26/2020. Canberra: ASPI International Cyber Policy Centre.

Xu, Vicky Xiuzhong, James Leibold, and Daria Impiombato. 2021, October 19. The architecture of repression: Unpacking Xinjiang’s governance. Policy Brief Report No. 51/2021. Canberra: ASPI International Cyber Policy Centre..

Zenz, Adrian. 2020. Sterilizations, IUDs, and Mandatory Birth Control: The CCP’s Campaign to Suppress Uyghur Birthrates in Xinjiang. June. Washington, D.C.: Jamestown Foundation.

Zenz, Adrian. 2021. Coercive Labor and Forced Displacement in Xinjiang’s Cross-Regional Labor Transfer Program: A Process-Oriented Evaluation. March. Washington, D.C.: Jamestown Foundation.

Zenz, Adrian. 2021, November 27. The Xinjiang Papers: An Introduction. London: Uyghur Tribunal.

Zenz, Adrian. 2021, September 14. ‘Evidence of the Chinese Central Government’s Knowledge of and Involvement in Xinjiang’s Re-Education Internment Campaign’. Jamestown China Brief.

Zenz, Adrian. 2022, May 24. ‘Public Security Minister’s Speech Describes Xi Jinping’s Direction of Mass Detentions in Xinjiang’. China File.

Zenz, Adrian. 2022, June 5. ‘Unemployment Monitoring and Early Warning: New Trends in Xinjiang’s Coercive Labor Placement Systems’. Jamestown China Brief.

Selected journalistic works

AFP. 2019. ‘Fake tourists and car crashes: How China blocks reporters in Xinjiang’. June 27.

ASPI. n.d. The Xinjiang Data Project.

The Associated Press. 2020. ‘China Cuts Uighur Births with IUDs, Abortion, Sterilization’. AP. June 29.

Bad China Takes. n.d. ‘Breaking Down the Xinjiang Crisis’. the woke global times.

Brophy, David. 2018. ‘China’s Uyghur Repression’. Jacobin Magazine. May 31.

Byler, Darren. 2018. ‘China’s Government Has Ordered a Million Citizens to Occupy Uighur Homes. Here’s What They Think They’re Doing.’ ChinaFile. October 24.

Byler, Darren. 2019. ‘Ghost World’. Logic no. 8 (May).

Byler, Darren. 2019. ‘Spirit Breaking: Capitalism and Terror in Northwest China’. The Art of Life in Chinese Central Asia. July 22.

Byler, Darren. 2021. ‘Why Xinjiang is an internal settler colony’. SupChina. September 1.

Cadell, Cate. 2021. ‘Mosques disappear as China strives to “build a beautiful Xinjiang”’. Reuters. May 14.

Dooley, Ben. 2018. ‘Inside China’s Internment Camps: Tear Gas, Tasers and Textbooks’. AFP. October 25.

Dou, Eva, and Cate Cadell. 2022. ‘As crackdown eases, China’s Xinjiang faces long road to rehabilitation’. The Washington Post. September 23.

Epp, Alexander et al. 2022. ‘“Window Into a Police State”: Data Leak Provides a Look into China’s Brutal Camp System’. Der Spiegel. May 24.

Fahrion, Georg. 2021. ‘In the Sinister Disneyland of Xinjiang: China’s Ongoing Oppression of the Uighurs’. Der Spiegel. May 27.

Feng, Emily. 2022. ‘Uyghur kids recall physical and mental torment at Chinese boarding schools in Xinjiang’. NPR. February 2.

Fiskesjö, Magnus. 2019. ‘Universities Should Not Ignore China’s Persecution of Scores of Leading Academics’. Inside Higher Ed. April 8.

Grauer, Yael. 2021. ‘Revealed: Massive Chinese Politics Database: Millions of Leaked Police Files Detail Suffocating Surveillance of China’s Uyghur Minority’. The Intercept. January 29.

Graham-Harrison, Emma, and Juliette Garside. 2019. ‘“Allow No Escapes”: Leak Exposes Reality of China’s Vast Prison Network’. The Guardian. November 24.

Griffiths, James. 2021. ‘These Uyghurs were locked up by the US in Guantanamo. Now they’re being used as an excuse for China’s crackdown in Xinjiang’. CNN. May 15.

Grose, Timothy. 2021. ‘Dragon Boat Festival and Chinese Nation-Building in Xinjiang’. The Diplomat. June 14.

Grose, Timothy. 2024. ‘Beijing’s Culinary Crusade: Erasing Uyghur Identity through Food’. ChinaFile. May 13.

Harris, Rachel. 2020. ‘Islamophobia, the Global War on Terror, and China’s policies in Xinjiang’. Society and Space. December 7.

Hill, Matthew, David Campanale, and Joel Gunter. 2021. ‘“Their Goal Is to Destroy Everyone”: Uighur Camp Detainees Allege Systematic Rape’. BBC News. February 2.

Institute of Asian Research, University of British Columbia. n.d. Xinjiang Documentation Project.

Izgil, Tahir Hamut. 2021. ‘One by One, My Friends Were Sent to the Camps’. The Atlantic. July 14.

Kang, Dake. 2021. ‘Room for 10,000: Inside China’s largest detention center’. The Associated Press. July 22.

Kang, Dake. 2021. ‘Terror & tourism: Xinjiang eases its grip, but fear remains’. The Associated Press. October 10.

Kanji, Azeezah and David Palumbo-Liu. 2021. ‘The faux anti-imperialism of denying anti-Uighur atrocities’. Al Jazeera. May 14.

Khatchadourian, Raffi. 2021. ‘Surviving the Crackdown in Xinjiang’. The New Yorker. April 5.

Kine, Phelim. 2021. ‘How China hijacked the war on terror’. POLITICO. September 9.

Leibold, James. 2019. ‘Despite China’s denials, its treatment of the Uyghurs should be called what it is: cultural genocide’. The Conversation. July 24.

Millward, James. 2019. ‘“Reeducating” Xinjiang’s Muslims’. The New York Review of Books 66 (2). February 7.

Millward, James. 2020. ‘The Uyghurs’ suffering deserves targeted solutions, not anti-Chinese posturing’. The Guardian. July 27.

Murray, Christine. 2020. ‘Shipment of Chinese Hair Goods Seized by U.S. Officials Suspecting Forced Labor’. Reuters. July 2.

Rajagopalan, Megha, Alison Killing, and Christo Buschek. 2020. ‘China Built A Vast New Infrastructure To Imprison Uighurs’. BuzzFeed News. August 27.

Ramzy, Austin, and Chris Buckley. 2019. ‘“Absolutely No Mercy”: Leaked Files Expose How China Organized Mass Detentions of Muslims’. The New York Times. November 16.

Reid Ross, Alexander and Courtney Dobson. 2022, January 18. ‘The Big Business of Uyghur Genocide Denial’. Newlines.

Roberts, Sean R. 2021, February 10. ‘The Roots of Cultural Genocide in Xinjiang: China’s Imperial Past Hangs Over the Uyghurs’. Foreign Affairs.

Roche, Gerald. 2021. ‘Xinjiang Denialists Are Only Aiding Imperialism’. The Nation. July 6.

Salimjan, Guldana. 2021. ‘Camp land: Settler ecotourism and Kazakh dispossession in contemporary Xinjiang’. Lausan. September 1.

Smith Finley, Joanne. 2018. ‘“Now We Don’t Talk Anymore”: Inside the ‘Cleansing’ of Xinjiang’. ChinaFile. December 28.

Stallard, Katie. 2022. ‘The Silencing: a special report on China, the Uyghurs and a culture under attack’. The New Statesman. February 16.

Stone, Lyman. 2020. ‘The Chinese Communist Party Wants a Han Baby Boom That Isn’t Coming’. Foreign Policy. June 30.

Sudworth, John. 2022. ‘The faces from China’s Uyghur detention camps’. BBC News. May 24.

Talk About Xinjiang 我们一起来谈谈新疆. n.d.

Tiezzi, Shannon. 2021. ‘What Do Chinese People Think Is Happening in Xinjiang?’. The Diplomat. May 29.

Tynen, Sarah. 2020. ‘I was in China doing research when I saw my Uighur friends disappear’. The Conversation. March 9.

Urbina, Ian. 2023. ‘The Uyghurs Forced to Process the World’s Fish’. The Outlaw Ocean Project. October 9.

Vervaeke, Leen. 2021. ‘How China is destroying the Uyghur mosques’. De Volkskrant. June 12.

Wright, Rebecca, Ivan Watson, Zahid Mahmood, and Tom Booth. 2021. ‘“Some are just psychopaths”: Chinese detective in exile reveals extent of torture against Uyghurs. CNN. October 4.

Wu, Huizhong. 2022, February 1. ’A Uyghur gets death sentence, as China bans once OK’d books’. The Associated Press.

Xinjiang Victims Database. n.d.

Zenz, Adrian and Erin Rosenberg. 2021. ‘Beijing Plans a Slow Genocide in Xinjiang: Chinese officials’ own words speak to plans to reduce Uyghur births’. Foreign Policy. June 8.

Harassment and Slander

Cadell, Cate. 2021. ‘China counters Uighur criticism with explicit attacks on women witnesses’. Reuters. March 1.

Chan, Melissa. 2021. ‘“I Never Thought China Could Ever Be This Dark”: Leaving Xinjiang has not meant Uyghur women are free of Beijing’s grasp’. The Atlantic. April 8.

Clarke, Donald. 2021. ‘China v. Zenz: the lawsuit’. The China Collection. March 9.

Kang, Dake. 2021. ‘Chinese authorities order video denials by Uyghurs of abuses’. AP. May 20.

Kao, Jeff, Raymond Zhong, Paul Mozur, Aliza Aufrichtig, Nailah Morgan, and Aaron Krolik. 2021. ‘“We Are Very Free”: How China Spreads Its Propaganda Version of Life in Xinjiang’. The New York Times. June 22.

Karadsheh, Jomana and Gul Tuysuz. 2021. ‘Uyghurs are being deported from Muslim countries, raising concerns about China’s growing reach’. CNN. June 8.

Kuo, Lili and Gerry Shih. 2021. ‘China researchers face abuse, sanctions as Beijing looks to silence critics’. The Washington Post. April 7.

Ramzy, Austin. 2021. ‘“They Have My Sister”: As Uyghurs Speak Out, China Targets Their Families’. The New York Times. July 27.

Yang, William. 2021. ‘Chinese journalist vowed to fight on despite becoming target of the Chinese smear campaign for reporting on Xinjiang’. Medium. April 7.

Zenz, Adrian. 2020. ‘A Response to the Report Compiled by Lin Fangfei, Associate Professor at Xinjiang University’. Medium. October 7.

‘Solidarity statement on behalf of scholars sanctioned for their work on China / 学界联署声明:声援因从事中国研究而被制裁之学者’. n.d.

Join the conversation


  1. Beste Sense, ik ben geen wetenschapper. Uit nieuwsgierigheid zou ik willen vragen, worden Amnesty rapporten als academische literatuur beschouwd? Ze worden toch niet gepeerreviewed ? En idem voor rapporten van denktanks als ASPI?
    Ik heb zelf meegeschreven aan een rapport van het LAC maar ik meende dat dat gezien werd als beleidsonderzoek en niet als academische literatuur
    Vr groet
    Annemarie Montulet

    1. Ik heb ze bij de academische publicaties gezet, omdat ze grondiger en technischer zijn dan de journalistieke publicaties. De gepeerreviewde publicaties zijn gemarkeerd met een ‘🍐’.

Leave a comment

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.